## Write short note modeling source in MOSFETs.

Ans. In MOSFET, flicker noise and thermal noise are the primary contributors to the presence of noise. In the Si-SiO_{2} interface region, flicker noise connected with the trapping and releasing of electrons. In the channel, thermal noise connected with the carriers. In either the small signal or large signal device model can be modeled as a current source between the source and drain because these noises sources contribute to the total drain current, as shown in fig. 2.17 (a).

The thermal noise current is white noise, which has zero mean. It is simply characterized by its spectral density as given below –

Where, R_{FET } = Equivalent FET resistance

T = Temperature in ^{0}K

K = Boltzmann’s constant

G_{m}= Small signal transconductance.

In the ohmic region and saturation region, flicker noise current characterized by the spectral density –

Where, I_{DQ} = Quiescent current

K_{f} = Flicker noise coefficient

F = Frequency

K’, C_{ox}, L = MOSFET model parameters,

The spectral current density of noise current source I_{N} can be determined by adding S_{If} and S_{IW} as given below –

S_{N} = S_{IW} + S_{If}

_{ }If the frequency band [f_{1}, f_{2}], RMS flicker noise and white noise current source can be determine from the spectral density and is given by –

It is noted that, if we define RMS flicker noise and white noise currents by the square root of the integral of the spectral densities –