Write and explain the various techniques of scientific management.Ripunjay Tiwari
Ans. Taylor and his associates suggested the following techniques in order to put the philosophy of scientific management into practice –
(i) Scientific Task Setting – It is necessary to set the standard task which average worker should achieve during a working day. Taylor called it a fair day’s work.
(ii) Work Study – Work study implies an organized, objective, systematic, analytical and critical assessment Of the efficiency of various operations in an enterprise. It uses the following techniques-
(a) Method Study- This study is conducted to know the best technique for doing a particular job. It aids in minimizing the distance travelled by materials and brings improvements in handling, transporting, inspection and storage of raw materials and goods.
(b) Motion Study– Motion study is the study of the movement of an operator or a machine and it is done to eliminate useless motions and find out the best method of doing a particular task.
(c) Time Study or Work Measurement– It is the technique of observing and recording the time needed to do each element of an industrial operation. The precise time needed for each element of a man’s work is found out through time study. It helps in fixing the standard time needed to perform a
(d) Fatigue Study – Fatigue, physical or mental, has an bad effect on the health and efficiency of the worker. Fatigue study helps in reducing fatigue among the workers.
(iii) Planning the Task– Taylor emphasized the need for planning work and advocated that planning function should be separated from the executive function. Workers should not be asked to select their own methods and decide what they have to do. Planning department should make a detailed planning. The planning department should prepare.
(iv) Standardization – Taylor suggested for the standardization of tools, and equipment, cost system and many their items. Efforts should be made to provide standardized working environment and methods of production to the workers.
(v) Scientific Selection and Training – Management should adopt scientific selection procedure in order to select the right men for the right jobs. Specific training should be given to the workers for the jobs to which they are appointed so that they can perform their jobs effectively.
(vi) Differential Piece-wage Plan– Taylor suggested the differential piece-wage plan to attract the highly efficient and productive workers. According to this plan, there are two piece work rates, one is lower and another is higher. Standard of efficiency is determined either in terms of time or output based on time and motion study. When a worker completes the work within standard time or produces more than standard output within the standard time, he will be given higher piece rate. On the other side, if a worker is below the standard, he will be given lower piece rate.
(vii) Specialization- Taylor recommer1ded ‘functional foremanship’ to introduce specialization. He advocated eight foreman in all to control the various aspects of production. He suggested four foreman in the planning department, namely, route clerk, instruction card clerk, time and cost clerk and shop disciplinarian. The four foreman are recommended for getting the required performance from the workers include gang boss, speed boss, repair boss, and inspector.