# Tag - Tutorial

## Proteus Tutorial – Using Single and Multiple Digit Segment Displays

Segment Displays Inside Segment Displays Segment Displays contain LEDs arranged in a specific fashion such that, various characters or shapes can be displayed, by turning ON selective segments in different combinations. Shape of the LED is rectangular (to appear as a segment).Generally, these are used to [...]

## Proteus Tutorial – Light Emitting Diode (LED) and Bar Graph Display

How to work with Light Emitting Diode (LED) in Proteus In this post we will be learning on how to use the “Light Emitting Diode (LED)” component in Proteus simulation software. In case you have not got on through the basics of Proteus, here is the link – Proteus [...]

## Varistor Tutorial

Varistor Introduction The word “Varistor” is an acronym, and is a combination of the words VARI-able resi-STOR used to describe their mode of operation way back in their early days of development which is a bit misleading since a varistor can not be manually varied [...]

## Resistor Tutorial Summary

We can summarise this resistor tutorial section and what we have learnt as follows: The job of a Resistor is to limit the current flowing through an electrical circuit. Resistance is measured in Ohm’s and is given the symbol Ω Carbon, Film and Wirewound [...]

## Logic NAND Gate Tutorial

Logic NAND Gate Definition Logic NAND Gate Equivalence The logic or Boolean expression given for a logic NAND gate is that for Logical Addition, which is the opposite to the AND gate, and which it performs on the complements of the inputs. The Boolean expression for [...]

## Logic NOR Gate Tutorial

Logic NOR Gate Definition Logic NOR Gate Equivalent The logic or Boolean expression given for a logic NOR gate is that for Logical Multiplication which it performs on the complements of the inputs. The Boolean expression for a logic NOR gate is denoted by a plus [...]

## Exclusive-NOR Gate Tutorial

Exclusive-NOR Gate Definition However, an output “1” is only obtained if BOTH of its inputs are at the same logic level, either binary “1” or “0”. For example, “00” or “11”. This input combination would then give us the Boolean expression of:  Q = (A     B) = A.B + A.B In other words, the [...]

## Exclusive-OR Gate Tutorial

Exclusive-OR Gate Definition But there are two other types of digital logic gates which although they are not a basic gate in their own right as they are constructed by combining together other logic gates, their output Boolean function is important enough to be considered [...]

## Digital Buffer Tutorial

Digital Buffer Definition Sometimes in digital electronic circuits we need to isolate logic gates from each other or have them drive or switch higher than normal loads, such as relays, solenoids and lamps without the need for inversion. One type of single input logic gate [...]

## Capacitor Tutorial Summary

A capacitor consists of two metal plates separated by a dielectric. A capacitor consists of two metal plates separated by a dielectric. The dielectric can be made of many insulating materials such as air, glass, paper, plastic etc. A capacitor is capable of storing [...]

## Transistor Tutorial Summary

We can summarise this transistors tutorial section as follows: The Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) is a three layer device constructed form two semiconductor diode junctions joined together, one forward biased and one reverse biased. There are two main types of bipolar junction transistors, (BJT) [...]

## Optocoupler Tutorial

Optocoupler Tutorial Introduction In other words, transformers isolate the primary input voltage from the secondary output voltage using electromagnetic coupling by means of a magnetic flux circulating within the iron laminated core. But we can also provide electrical isolation between an input source and an [...]