[Space] ISRO Mars Orbiter Mission (MoM) Mangalyaan: Payloads, Purpose, Argument favor & againstDevendra Vishwakarma
- Mars Planet: Basics
- Mars: Past missions
- MoM (ISRO) vs MAVEN (NASA)
- MoM’s Launch Vehicle
- MoM @Mars
- Payloads and purpose?
- Do we need Mars Mission?
- #1: cash will be recovered
- #2: Soft Power
- #3: Did not steal from poor’s month
- #4: Making History
- #5: Misc.
- Mock Questions
- Correct Answers for the MCQs
- Old article, just updating a few bits after Mangalyaan reached Mars in September 2014.
- There is no dearth of ball by ball commentary and technical articles in newspaper, but for the exam focus should be on: basics, purpose, pros and cons.
- Otherwise September seems to be the busiest and tiresome month of 2014 for competitive aspirants- Modi Government launching a new scheme-committee-initiative every day, SC giving a new landmark verdict every day, newspapers are littered with columns on foreign relations, Ebola, Mars, ISIS, J&K floods, Scotland and what not.
Mars Planet: Basics
- Has two moons: Phobos and Deimos
- 4th planet from Sun
- 2nd smallest planet in the Solar system after Mercury.
- Diameter: ~6800 kms (Mars); Earth (~12700 kms)
- Volume wise, ~8 Mars would fit inside our Earth.
- One Martian day: 24 hours 37 minutes
- One Martian year: 687 days
- Mars is also tilted on its axis (25 degrees).
- Mars gravity 1/10th of Earth.
- When Sun and Mars are in opposite direction, it can be easily observed from Earth.
|56 million kms||400 million kms, when both are on opposite sides of solar system.|
Mars: Past missions
|USSR Mars orbiter (70s)||USSR: Korabl series, Mars 1969 series, Phobos Grunt|
|USA / NASA
||USA Mariner series before mid-60s|
|European Space Agency (2003) Beagal lender (although images lost)||Japan’s Nozomi- failed to enter Mars orbit (1998-2003)|
|ISRO’s Mars Orbitor Mission (2013-14)|
MoM (ISRO) vs MAVEN (NASA)
|ISRO’s MoM||NASA’s Maven|
|Mars Orbitor Mission||Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN)|
|launch vehicle=PSLV||Atlas V rockets. (more powerful than PSLV)|
|launched on 5th Nov 2013||18th Nov 2013|
|reached Mars on 24th Sep 2014||Reached Mars on 21st Sep 2014.|
|launched from Sriharikota, Andhra||launched from Cape Canaveral in Florida, US.|
|Rs.450 crore||$671 million|
|Doing three studies:
|has five instruments/payloads||has eight instrument- spectrograph, magnetometer, ion analyzer etc.|
|–||The spacecraft may also provide communications relay support for future Mars landers and rovers.|
MoM’s Launch Vehicle
|Polar satellite launch vehicle||Geosynchronous satellite launch vehicle|
|Can carry upto 1600 kg satellite||2500kg|
ISRO had used PSLV XL (C25) launch vehicle to launch the Mangalyaan (Mars spacecraft). Why?
- At that time, GSLV tests were not successful. Last time they tried GSLV to launch GSAT-14 satellite and failed because of fuel leak. (Aug 2013)
- Mangalyaan weighs ~1300 kg. PSLV can easily carry this weight.
- PSLV is tried and tested technology.
- MoM/Mangalyaan: first Indian spacecraft to cross Earth’s escape velocity of 11.2 km per second.
- Mangalyaan traveled for ~300 days, covering ~65 crore kilometers, and reached Martian orbit in September 2014.
- Mangalyan is not the fastest spacecraft to reach Mars. Others are far ahead of It, in terms of speed. For example- European Space Agency’s Mars mission (2003) reached Mars in ~210 days.
- MoM cost 7 rupees per kms to reach Mars.
- Nov 2013: MoM Launched from Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh
- Sep 2014: MoM reached Mars orbit
|Periapsis: nearest point||~420 kms|
|Apoapsis: farthest point||~77,000 kms|
|time to finish one circle of Mars||~73 hours / ~ 3 days.|
|Orbit inclination||150 degrees|
Payloads and purpose?