“Scientific management in its sesame, involves in its essence a complete revolution on the part of size workers and equally complete revolution on the part of those on management side.” Examine briefly.Ripunjay Tiwari
Ans. The above statement seems true in the light of following advantages of scientific management –
(i) Incentive wages to the workers for higher production.
(ii) Detailed instructions and constant guidance for the workers.
(iii) Opportunity for training and development to increase skills.
(iv) Less fatigue in work due to the application of scientific methods.
(v) Better. working conditions and tools of work for good health of the workers.
To Management –
(i) Establishment of harmonious relationships between the workers and the management.
(ii) Replacement of traditional rule of thumb method by scientific investigation.
(iii) Better utilization of various resources and elimination of wastes.
(iv) Proper selection and training of the workers leading to better work force.
(v) Scientific determination of fair work a worker can do during the day. This leads to establishment of good relations between the employers and the workers.
(vi) Achievement of equal division of responsibilities between the workers and the management.
(vii) Standardization of tools, equipment, materials and work methods for increasing efficiency.
On the basis of above benefits of scientific management, it can be said that scientific management is a complete revolution from the point of view of workers as well as management. But, Taylor’s scientific management was criticized not only by the workers but also by managers. The main points of criticism are as follows –
Worker’s Viewpoint –
(i) Exploitation of Workers – According to worker’s viewpoint, “scientific management is a clever device for the exploitation of the workers. Their wages do not rise in the same proportion in which their productivity increases. A major portion of the profits from increased productivity is taken away by the employers.” But, it should be noted that the owners have to invest a lot of money on introducing scientific management. However, the share of profits given to the workers should be just and fair.
(ii) No Scope of Initiative – As there is a divorce between the functions of planning and doing, the workers have no chance to take initiative. They are supposed to do whatever they are told to do.
(iii) Speeding-up of Workers – Workers feel that scientific management attempts to force them to work their maximum. it does not bother about the adverse effect of such speeding-up on the mental and physical well-being of the workers. Here, it should be noted that scientific management improves methods of work, tools and equipment and working conditions in order to obtain higher productivity. In addition, scientific management undertakes fatigue study to provide suitable rest pauses to the workers in the course of work.
(iv) Weakening of Trade Union – Scientific management recommends harmony in the organization. It discourages disputes over the distribution of profits from increased productivity. This in a way weakens the trade union movement.
(v) Unemployment– Workers think that scientific management increases the efficiency through standard methods, working conditions, tools and equipment. Because the output per worker is increased, there will be a cut in employment opportunities.
(vi) Boredom- Scientific management introduces specialization in the enterprise. Workers are supposed to do the routine work just like automatic machines, which generates the problem of monotony among the workers who start looking for better jobs in other organizations. Management Viewpoint –
(i) Reorganization– Scientific management involves reorganization of the entire industrial unit. Whether it is acquiring new standardized tools or equipment, or standardizing the working conditions, a lot of time has to be consumed in the process. The work has to be stopped during the intervening
period. Hence, the management has to suffer a great loss because of organization. Small scale industrial units cannot bear this burden.