What is “scientific management” ? Explain its principles.Ripunjay Tiwari
Ans. The term ‘scientific management’ was first used in U.S.A. in 1910 by Louis Brandies. As a process, it was first seen in U.K. in 1832 by Charles Babbage. Frederick W. Taylor was the first person who insisted on the introduction of scientific methods in management and it was he who, along with his associates made the first systematic study of management. He launched a new movement in 1910 which ·is known as ‘scientific management’. Therefore, he is regarded as the father of scientific management. According to Taylor, “Scientific management is the substitution of exact scientific investigations and knowledge for the old individual judgment or opinion in all matters relating to the work done in the shop”.
Scientific management is defined as the “art of knowing exactly what is to be done and the best way of doing it”. Scientific management is the outcome of applying scientific knowledge and the scientific techniques to the various aspects of management and the problems that arise from them.
Principles of Scientific” Management – Taylor has given some basic principles of scientific management, which are given as follows –
(i) Replacing Rule of Thumb with Science– Taylor has emphasized that organized knowledge should be applied in scientific management, that will replace rule of thumb. The use of scientific method denotes precision in determining any aspect of work. On the other hand, the rule of thumb emphasises estimation. Because exactness of various aspects of work like day’s fair work, standardization in work, differential piece rate for payment etc., is the basic core of scientific management, it is necessary that all these are measured precisely and should not be based on mere estimates. This approach can be adopted is all aspects of managing.
(ii) Harmony in Group Action – Taylor has emphasized that attempts should be made to achieve harmony in group action rather than discord. Group harmony means that there should be mutual give and take situation and proper understanding so that group as a whole contributes to the maximum.
(iii) Cooperation – Scientific management involves obtaining cooperation rather than chaotic individualism. Mutual confidence, cooperation and goodwill are the basis of scientific management. The cooperation between workers and management can be developed only through mutual understanding
and a change in thinking.
Taylor has suggested “substitution of war for peace, hearty and brotherly cooperation for contentment and strife, replacement of suspicious watchfulness with mutual confidence, of becoming friends instead of enemies. It is along this line, I say, the scientific management must be developed.”
(iv) Maximum Output – Scientific management supports continuous increase in production and productivity instead of restricted production either by management or by worker. According to Taylor, “there is hardly any worse crime to my mind than that of deliberately restricting output.”
He decried quarrel over production but welcomed quarrel over distribution, provided the product to be distributed had outgrown the size. So, he suggested the management and workers to “turn their attention towards increasing the size of the surplus until the size of the surplus becomes so large that it is necessary to quarrel over how it shall be divided.”
(v) Development of Workers- In scientific management, all workers should be developed to the fullest extent possible for their own and for the highest prosperity of the company. Development of workers needs their scientific selection and providing them training at the workplace. Training should be provided
to workers to keep them fully fit according to the need of new techniques of working that may be different from the non-scientific methods