[Old NCERT World History Ch7] Industrial Revolution, Capitalism, Their Effect on Society, Rise of Trade Unions & Socialism

industrial revolution in England

[Old NCERT World History Ch7] Industrial Revolution, Capitalism, Their Effect on Society, Rise of Trade Unions & Socialism

  1. Prologue
  2. Introduction to Chapter
  3. Capitalism
  4. Capitalism and Colonization
  5. Industrial Revolution
  6. Factory System
  7. Why Industrial Revolution started in England?
    1. Textile Industry: The revolution
    2. Powerloom
    3. Cotton Gin
    4. Steam Engine
    5. Blast Furnace
    6. TRANSPORT Revolution
    7. Postal Revolution
    8. Agriculture Revolution
  8. Industrial Revolution in Other Countries
  9. Tariff barriers
  10. Race4raw material
  11. From Village to City
  12. Industrial Capitalism
    1. Industrial capitalism: Consequences of
    2. Labour Laws
    3. Trade Unions
  13. Laissez-faire
  14. Socialism


Until now we’ve seen Old NCERTs, Class 10, Ch.9 to 13.(=Story of civilization Volume II by Arjun Dev.) In those chapters we got an overview/foundation of following topics (from UPSC syllabus point of view):

  1. colonization, decolonization
  2. Two world wars
  3. (Political philosophies like) Communism and its effect on the society

Now moving to Old NCERT Class 9, chapter 7. In this chapter, we’ll see Industrial revolution, political philosophies like Capitalism and their effect on the society.

Introduction to Chapter

  • TOWARDS the end of the middle Ages, feudalism as an economic system had started declining. This process was furthered by the Renaissance and other developments. The rise of towns and cities and the growth in trade stimulated the production of manufactured goods.
  • There was an increase in the demand for goods which previously had been considered luxury goods. Life in the new towns and cities had created a desire for many new goods also. All these factors provided a great stimulus to the production of manufactured goods.
  • For a long time, however, the techniques and organization of producing goods did not undergo any significant improvement. The traditional methods were inadequate to meet the growing demand for goods.
  • During the later half of the 18th century there began a series of changes which revolutionized the techniques and organization of production. These developments resulted in the rise of a new type of economy— an industrial economy.
  • The term ‘Industrial Revolution’ is used to describe these developments because the changes came rapidly and they had far-reaching effects on the history of the world.


The new system of society which had been emerging in Europe from the 15th century is called capitalism. Under capitalism

  1. The instruments and the means by which goods are produced are owned by private individuals and the production is carried out for making profit.
  2. The workers under this system do not own anything but work for a wage.
  3. The owners of wealth under capitalism who are called capitalists do not keep their wealth or consume it or use it for purposes of display but invest it to make profit.
  4. Goods are produced for sale in the market with a view to making profit.
  5. This system is in marked contrast with the feudal system in which goods were produced for local use and the investment of wealth for making profit did not take place.



Economic life under feudalism was static as goods were produced for local consumption and there was no incentive to produce more by employing better means of producing goods for a bigger market. Economy life under capitalism was fast moving with the aim of producing more and more goods for bigger markets so that more profits could be made.

Capitalism and Colonization

  • The discovery of new lands and the establishment of colonies had resulted in unprecedented expansion of trade and accumulation of wealth by merchants.
  • The trade included also the trade in human beings, that is, slave trade. (Mrunal: We already saw the slave trade and triangular trade under the [World history] Colonization of Africa.)
  • The colonization was accompanied by the plunder of the wealth of the people who were colonized. For example, the treasures of the Inca and the Aztec civilizations were plundered by the Spaniards.
  • Mines in the newly conquered areas in the Americas were also exploited for precious metals like gold and silver. Large numbers of native people were worked to death in these mines.
  • You have also read about the use of slave labour in the plantations in the Americas. Colonization of Asia caused similar havoc and devastation. During a few decades of Dutch rule, the population of a province of Java in Indonesia was reduced to less than one-fourth of its former size.
  • The defeat of the Nawab of Bengal by the English in 1757 was followed by years of naked plunder of the wealth of Bengal. According to estimates of the English government at that time, the English Company and its officials received 6,000,000 pounds as gifts during the period of 1757-1766.
  • The plunder by the English contributed to a famine in 1769-70 in which about a quarter of the population of Bengal perished. Thus a lot of wealth was accumulated in Europe for investment to make more profit.

In the words of Karl Marx,

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