[Old NCERT World History ch13] After WW2: Birth of UN, Division of Germany-USSR-Yugoslavia (Part 1 of 4)Devendra Vishwakarma
- Second World War: Immediate Consequences
- Yalta Conference
- Birth of UNITED NATIONS
- The Potsdam Conference
- Europe after the Second World War
- GERMANY: partition
- GERMANY: Fall of Berlin Wall
- France and Italy: rise of communism
- Britain: Rise of Labour Party
- Eastern Europe
- Fall of USSR
- Retreat of Socialism
So far, in the Old NCERT Class10, we’ve seen following
- Imperialism, Colonization of Asia, Africa and Americas
- Russian Revolution
- Interwar years and WW2
Now 13th Chapter deals with World after Second World War, Cold War, NAM.
The UPSC GS Syllabus is silent about Cold war, while NAM is too clichéd and outdated topic for International relations(IR), still this 13th chapter remains relevant in context of following topics of GS Mains paper I syllabus:
- Redrawal of national boundaries
The redrawal of national boundaries had begun with Chapter 9 itself: when Imperialist countries started colonizing Asia, Africa and Americas, recall the paper partition of Africa and how 30% of its national borders are straight lines.
Chapter 13 is the climax in terms of redrawls of National boundaries, we can see that:
|Region||Boundaries redrawn after WW2|
|Europe||Germany=> East and West, later combined.|
|Eastern Europe||Fall of USSR leads to 15 independent republics|
|From Czechoslovakia => Czech Republic + Slovak Republic.|
|Yugoslavia breaks into
|Asia||From British India to: India+Pakistan (+later Bangladesh)|
|Indochina => Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia|
|Vietnam=> North + South, later combined|
|Korea=> North + South, never combined.|
Anyways, let’s start the chapter:
THE world has been completely transformed during the years since the end of the Second World War in 1945. Its political map has also changed. The influence and the dominations which a few European imperialist powers exercised in the prewar years became things of the past. A large number of nations in Asia and Africa which had been suffering under colonial rule emerged as independent nations Together, they have become a major factor in the world. The United States had emerged as the biggest power after the First World War. The Soviet Union also emerged as a mighty power after the Second World War, in spite of the terrible devastation that she suffered during the war Before the Second World War, the Soviet Union was the only country. In the world which professed socialism. After the war, a number of other countries joined her.
The two world wars, fought within a brief period of about 30 years, resulted in the loss of millions of human lives. The danger of a new world war which would destroy human life altogether created a new awareness of the need for establishing lasting peace. Peoples and nations made efforts in this direction by promoting mutual relations based on friendship and cooperation. They also created many new institutions and agencies for the purpose.
However, in spite of these efforts the period after the Second World War has been full of stresses and strains. It has seen many conflicts and wars in which hundreds of thousands of people have been killed even though the world has escaped a large-scale conflagration.
Since the late 1980s, further changes have taken place m some parts of the world. Some of the consequences of the Second World War and, in some cases, even of the First World War have been undone during the past five years. During this period, some of the issues which dominated the world and some of the forces and factors which shaped the world for about four decades after the war have become irrelevant. The ‘threat of communism’ which had been a major factor in determining the policies of many countries since the Russian Revolution and, even more so, after the Second World War is no longer an issue. Communist regimes in the Soviet Union and in the countries of Eastern Europe have collapsed. The Soviet Union has broken up into 15 independent States. Many other changes have taken place the world over and it is possible to think of the period from the late 19805 as the one marking the beginning of a new phase in the history of the world after the Second World War.
Second World War: Immediate Consequences
During the war, the major Allied nations had held many conferences and had issued declarations stating the principles which would form the bases of peace. The first major declaration had been issued by Britain and USA in 1941. It stated that Britain and the United States would not seek any territory. It also supported the right of every people to have the form of government of their choice. Early in 1942 was issued, as mentioned before, the United Nations Declaration. This Declaration supported the one issued by Britain and USA earlier. Another declaration stated that all the Chinese territories taken by Japan would be restored to her. In 1943, Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin, leaders of Britain, USA and the Soviet Union, respectively, met at Teheran. They declared their resolve to “banish the scourge and terror of war and to create a world in which all peoples may live free lives untouched by tyranny and according to their varying desires and their own consciences“.
Early in 1945 when Germany was on the verge of defeat, the heads of the three big nations met at Yalta in the Soviet Union. Here they agreed on a number of issues such as how to deal with Germany and the non-German territories which had been liberated from Germany.