What do you mean by process of management ? Discuss the main characteristics of management process.Ripunjay Tiwari
Ans. A process is a systematic way of doing things. The ‘Process of Management’ involves the determination of objectives, putting them into action and achieving the desired goals. Management process is the methodology of getting the things done. The logic of the management process is that particular functions are performed in a sequence through time. Whatever functions are performed by a manager and the sequence in which they are performed, is designated as management process.
The essential characteristic, of management functions are as follows –
(i) Management functions are universal in the sense that a manager has to perform all these functions it. the organization irrespective of his level . or type of organization. Acting in their managerial capacity, chief executives, departmental heads, foreman, supervisors etc., all do the same thing. In the
same way, whether it is business organization or non-business organization, the managerial functions are involved.
(ii) Management functior1s are of iterative nature, that is, they are contained within each other. As an example, planning, organizing, directing and controlling may take place within staffing function. In the same way, organizing may involve planning directing and controlling. Hence, all. management functions can be thought of as sub-functions of each other.
(iii) Management process~ suggests a sequential arrangement of functions. However, it is not always possible in the performance of managerial func1ions strictly in a sequence. Sequential concept may be true for initiating managerial functions in a new organization to start with. It is not essential to insist on a special time sequence for the various functions of management process for an on- going organization In this case, management process can be seen as a circular continuous movement as shown in fig. 2.3.
This process may begin from any point, not essentially from planning
and end at any point. Furthermore, many functions may be performed at the
same time. As an example, a superior manager also appraises (staffing function)
his subordinate as how carefully he is grasping the ideas.
(iv) Because there are several managerial functions; often a question
arises- which management function is more important so that managers devote
more time to that. This question is quite vital but it cannot be pointed out
categorically that a particular management function is more important than others.
Actually, no function is more important but the mix of the functions varies from
task to task and from level to level of management. So, the relative importance
of management functions can be identified in the context of management levels.
This analysis will bring the clue for training and developing the managers at
various levels for the performance of specific managerial functions.