Give the compositions, properties and uses of mild and high carbon steels.Ripunjay Tiwari
Ans- (i) mild steel- mild steel contains 0.05 to 0.3 carbon. It is further classified into three types-
(a) Dead mild steel – 0.05-0.15% c
(b) Mild steel – 0.15 – 0.2% c
(c) Mild steel – 0.2 _0 3%
Properties – Various properties of mild steel are given as follow-
(a) It can be easily forged and welded.
(b) It can magnetized permanently.
(c) It has fibrous structure .
(d) It cannot be hardened and tempered easily.
(e) It cannot be easily affected by hard water.
(f) It is ductile and malleable.
(g) It rusts readily.
(h) Its ultimate compressive strength is about 80 to 120 kN/cmsqr.
(i) Its specific gravity is 7.80
(j) It is tougher and more elastic than wrought iron.
(k) Its ultimate tensile and shear strengths are about 60 to 80 kN/cmsqr.
(l) Its melting point is about 1390C.
Uses – The uses of mild steel are as follows –
(a) Mild steel containing 0.5 to 0.15% carbon is used for
making stampings, wires, rivets, sheets, screws, pipes, thin plates, automobile
body, nails and chain.
(b) Mild steel containing 0.5 to 0.20% carbon has a tensile strength of 420 MPa, is used
For making camshafts, sheets, and strips for fan blades, universal beams, welded tubing, forgings, drag lines etc.
(c)mild steel containing 0.20 to 0.30% carbon has a tensile strength of 555 MPa and hardness of 140 BHN. It is used for making gears, valves, connecting rods, crankshafts, railway axles, fish plates, small forgings etc.
(ii) High Carbon Steel- steel containing 0.60 to 1.5% carbon is
known as high carbon steel. They possess wear resistance and high hardness after heat treatment.
Chemical composition of high carbon steel is given as follows-
Properties– various properties of high carbon steel are given as follows-
(a) Its ultimate tensile strength is about 80 to 110 kN/cm2 .
(b) Its ultimate shear strength is about 110 kN/cm2.
(c) Its ultimate compressive strength is about 140 to 200 kN/cm2.
(d) Its specific gravity is 7.90.
(e) It can be easily tempered and hardened.
(f) It can be magnetized permanently.
(g) It can be easily forged and welded.
(h) It rusts easily and rapidly.
(i) It is tougher and more elastic than mild steel.
(j) It has granular structure.
(k) It cannot be easily affected by salt water.
Uses – Uses of high carbon steel are given as follows –
(a) Steels containing ·0.6 to 0.8% carbon are used for making
cold chisels, wrenches, automatic clutch discs etc.
(b) Steels containing 0.8 to 0.9% carbon are used for making
rock drills, punches, dies, railway rails, circular saws, machine chisels etc.
(c) Steels containing 0.90 to 1.0% carbon are used for making
springs, keys, pins etc.
(d) Steels containing 1.0 to 1.1% carbon are used for making
machine tools, mandrels, taps etc.
(e) Steels containing 1.1 to 1.5% carbon are used for making
twist drills, taps, thread metal dies, knives etc.