What are the function’s of management ? How does traditional management differ from scientific management ?Ripunjay Tiwari
Ans. Traditional management differ from scientific management in the
following ways –
(i) In the traditional management workers are treated as a factor of production only. They get wages for their labour and are not supposed to have social and psychological needs on the other hand scientific management follow a scientific system of selection. The selected workers are to be trained to avoid wrong methods of work. Management is responsible for their scientific education and training.
(ii) Traditional management does not identify the functions which a manager has to perform to get results from others. On the other hand there should be cooperation between the management and the workers. This requires change of mental attitudes of the workers and the management towards each
other. Taylor called it mental revolution.
(iii) In the traditional management employees are merely treated as means for getting results. It ignores the needs of the workers and does not offer them human treatment on the other hand the management and the workers should try to achieve maximum output in place of restricted output. This will be beneficial to both the parties. There is equal division of responsibility between the managers and the workers.
One way to look at the process of management is to identify the functions which together make up the process. Some functions are basic to managerial activities at all levels from the foreman to the manager. Therefore, they are applicable to all business enterprises. Though Davis, Fayol, Koontz, 0′ Donne!, and Urwick have specified different number of management functions, the following eight functions may be used to describe the job of management –
(i) Forecasting- Forecasting is defined as the estimation of future activities i.e., the estimation of type, quantity and quality of future work. These estimates provide the basis to plan the future requirements for men, machines, materials, time, money etc. Forecasting may be done in connection with sales, production or any other type of business activities. Forecasting begins with the sales forecast and is followed by production forecast and forecast for probable costs, finance, purchases, profit or loss etc.
(ii) Planning- Planning is the process of determining goals and suitable courses of action for achieving those goals. It involves setting the ‘right’ goals and then selecting the ‘right’ means for achieving those goals. Planning is essential to ensure proper utilization of resources (i.e., men, materials, machines, time and money) to attain the goals of the enterprise. Following steps are taken by the planning manager for the purpose of planning-
(a) Recognition of the need for planning.
(b) Establishing objectives.
(c) Building the premises for planning. Forecast is based on the. inferences drawn from the known facts and figures. The forecasts are used for formulating plans for future.
(d) Identifying alternative courses of action.
(e) Evaluating alternatives courses.
(f) Selecting a best course of action.
(iii) Organizing – Organizing is the process of dividing work into convenient tasks or duties, grouping of such duties in the form of positions, grouping of various positions into departments and sections, assigning duties to individual positions, and delegating authority to each position so that the work is carried out as planned. Organizing function can be viewed as a bridge connecting the conceptual idea developed in creating and planning to the specific means for accomplishing these ideas. Organizing function contributes to the efficiency of the organization by ensuring that all essential activities will be
performed and objectives are attained.
(iv) Staffing – Staffing involves manning the various positions created by the organizing process. It includes preparing inventory of personnel available and identifying the gap between manpower required and available, identifying the sources from where people will be selected, selecting people, training and developing them, fixing financial compensation, appraising them periodically, etc.