[Economic Survey] Ch13: Demographic Dividend, Education & Skill Development schemes, National Youth Policy 2014

Cover Economic Survey ch13 Education

[Economic Survey] Ch13: Demographic Dividend, Education & Skill Development schemes, National Youth Policy 2014

  1. Prologue
  2. [Act I] Demography related Theories (DT)
    1. DT1: Malthusian theory of population growth
    2. DT2: Demographic transition
    3. DT3: Demographic dividend
  3. [Act II] Education
    1. Census 2011: Literacy ranking
    2. Mid-Day Meal (MDM)
    3. Sarva Sikhsha Abhiyan (SSA)
    4. RMSA & RUSA
    5. Model School scheme (MSS)
    6. Saakshar Bharat (SB)
    7. Education: Budget 2014 New schemes
    8. Economic survey: Education reforms
  4. [Act II] Youth & Skill Development
    1. National youth policy 2014 (NYP)
    2. (NEW) Skill India Program
    3. (NEW) Revamping Employment exchanges
    4. (NEW) Young leaders program
    5. Udan and STAR
  5. Appendix
    1. Pt. Madan Mohan Malviya
    2. Jay Prakash Narayan


Economic Survey Chapter 13, total four sub-parts

  1. UNDP’s Human Development report 2014, poor, women and children [coming soon]
  2. Demographic Dividend: Education, youth, Skill Development[you’re here]
  3. Minorities, SC, ST, PH, Elderly, Sports & Defense [done]
  4. Rural and urban infrastructure [done]

[Act I] Demography related theories (DT)

Cover Economic Survey ch13 Education

Here I’m only giving the outline of the theories. For more details, refer to NCERT Sociology, Class12, Chapter 2, “Demographic structure of Indian Society”.

DT1: Malthusian theory of population growth

  • Food production increases in arithmetic progression while population increases in geometric progression.
  • Therefore, Nature itself tries to establish equilibrium between population vs food supply, using “positive checks”.
Positive checks by nature Preventive checks by humans
  • famine
  • disease
  • delayed marriage
  • celibacy


Malthus Poverty is caused by population growth
Marxists Poverty is caused by unequal distribution of wealth

DT2: Demographic transition

Demographic transition four stages

Stage Birth rate Death Rate Remarks
  • low growth because of famine, wars, diseases
  • short life expectancy
  • India till 1921
  • Agri revolution: famine impact reduced
  • medical research: epidemics contained
  • Life expectancy increases but people yet to change breeding behavior. Result: population explosion
  • Western Europe in late 19th & Early 20th Century.
  • stationary phase
  • nuclear families, modern contraceptives, fertility starts declining
  • India since Census 2011
  • Population begins to “contract / shrink”
  • Highest life expectancy.
  • Most developed countries in this phase.

DT3: Demographic dividend

A country is said to be in “Demographic dividend” phase WHEN

  1. Majority of the population is in working age group
  2. Dependency ratio is minimum i.e. very few persons below 15 and above 64 age.
  3. Age pyramid shows “Bulge” in middle portion.

Observe the age pyramids of India, US, China and Japan for the year 2008 and 2020:

Age Pyramid Demographic dividend India

Bigger “bulge” in middle of Age Pyramid=Demographic Dividend

We can see, by 2020, India will have the youngest population among all four leading economies.

Year Working age population in India
2001 58%
2021 64%

However, to reap the Demographic dividend, we must invest in Health, education and skill Development of the young generation. In the previous part, we learned about the health related issues and schemes. In this part, we shall see education, skill Development.

[Act II] Education

First let’s observe the Census-2011 data


Formula for Literacy rate

भगवान का नाम लेके mugup these formulas


Census 2001, 2011 Literacy Rates

Sakshar Bharat scheme won UNESCO 2013 award for this


Census 2011 Literacy rates Male-Female

फिर से भगवान का नाम लेके mugup approx. total literacy & female literacy figure for Essay & Interview

Census 2011: Literacy ranking

Best Performers
Total Literacy Female Literacy
  1. Kerala (93%)
  2. Lakshadweep (UT)
  3. Mizoram
  4. Tripura
  5. Goa
  1. Kerala
  2. Mizoram
  3. Lakshadweep (UT)
  4. Tripura
  5. Goa

Bottom 5 States/UT in literacy

Worst performers
Total Literacy Female Literacy
  1. Bihar (Lowest)
  2. Arunanchal
  3. Rajasthan
  4. Jharkhand
  5. Andhra
  1. Rajasthan
  2. Bihar
  3. Jharkhand
  4. J & K
  5. UP
  • Now let’s begin with educational schemes
  • Old schemes, organizations covered here: wp.me/p2tsJl-1zM (cost: benefit not that great).
  • In this new article, I’m covering schemes mentioned in Economic survey 2013 or Budget 2014.

Mid-Day Meal (MDM)

WHO? Ministry of Human Resource Development (HRD)
Official name National Programme for Nutritional  Support to Primary Education
  • hot cooked meals
  • Class 1 to 8
  • Government schools, Government aided schools, Madresa, Maqtab etc.

Accountability tools used:

  1. Social audit
  2. Interactive voice response system (IVRS) – automated calls from state HQ to headmasters. They’ve to provide performance data on daily basis, which is automatically tabulated in computer system.

Economic Survey reforms:

  1. Poor quality food affecting child health.
  2. Provide Separate dining rooms to prevent rains and dust.
  3. Teachers should only supervise. At present, they’ve to even cook the food due to staff shortage, as a result, education activity suffers.

Sarva Sikhsha Abhiyan (SSA)

WHO? Ministry of Human Resource Development (HRD)
  • Right to education is implemented via SSA.
  • provides funding for infrastructure (building), services (teachers), free textbook, bags, uniforms, transport, hostel etc.
Budget 2014 Gave ~28,000 crores.

Economic Survey reforms:

  1. Right to Education (RTE) Act mandates a school within 1 km radius of every habitation. but this has led to mushrooming of schools at certain places. Better construct one single bigger school at nearby places, with facility from class 1 to 12.
  2. Regularize temporary teachers. Assess their performance on learning outcome of students.
  3. Fix the shortage of toilets, safe drinking water and safai karmachari.


HRD ministry implements both these schemes
Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan Rashtriya Uchhtar Shiksha Abhiyan

  • 2017: achieve above 90% gross enrollment ratio
  • 2020: universal retention i.e. all primary school children should reach high school.
  • Earlier schemes for girls’ hostels, vocational education etc. merged into this schemes.
  • Budget 2014: gave ~5000 cr.
  • Setup 80 new universities by merging existing autonomous colleges.
  • Create support infrastructure for existing universities
  • Indian Bank Association (IBA): provides cheaper loans to all economically weaker section (EWS) students
  • World Bank: provides funding for technical education quality improvement.

Model School scheme (MSS)

WHO? Ministry of Human Resource Development (HRD)
  • Total 6000 new secondary schools, to absorb the primary school passout kids.
  • 3500 model schools in educationally backward blocks (EBB), with help of state governments.
  • 2500 models schools in normal blocks, via PPP funding.

Saakshar Bharat (SB)

WHO? Ministry of Human Resource Development (HRD), 2001
  • Adult education program, main focus on women.
  • Aim: 80% total literacy by 2012; 100% female literacy by 2014.
  • won UNESO King Sejong Literacy Prize 2013
  • Funding given to districts having less than 50% adult literacy
  • Provides ‘3’ R’s (i.e. Reading, Writing & Arithmetic) with skill Development program.

Education: Budget 2014 New schemes

Jaitley did not elaborate the features of these schemes. Hence nothing much to write at the moment.

Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya New Teachers Training Programme. (500 cr)
Jai Prakash Narayan National Centre for Excellence in Humanities in Madhya Pradesh.
  • virtual classrooms and online courses (100 cr)
  • Via Communication Linked Interface for Cultivating Knowledge (CLICK)

New IITs and IIMS under budget 2014

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