Daily Current Affairs – 9th June, 2016

Daily Current Affairs – 9th June, 2016

India to become 35th member of MTCR

MTCR, NSG, Australia Group and the Wassenaar Arrangement – are the four nuclear regimes – aim to restrict the proliferation of items that could lead to the spread of, among others, weapons of mass destruction and chemical and biological weapons.

India has continuously put efforts to gain entry into these nuclear regimes. It has taken a number of steps to align its export regulations with what these regimes specify.

Finally, India to join the missile treaty club, as the countries belonging to the 34-member Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) raised no objection to India’s membership later this year.

(Note: Before going to read further, it is important to know some basics.)

Basics:

Nuclear proliferation

  • Nuclear proliferation is the spread of nuclear weapons, fissionable material, and weapons-applicable nuclear technology and information to nations not recognized as “Nuclear Weapon States” by the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons, also known as the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty or NPT.

Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)

  • The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament

Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)

  • The Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) is an informal and voluntary partnership among 34 countries to prevent the proliferation of missile and unmanned aerial vehicle technology capable of carrying a 500 kg payload for at least 300 km.

Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)

  • Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is a group of nuclear supplier countries that seek to prevent nuclear proliferation by controlling the export of materials, equipment and technology that can be used to manufacture nuclear weapons.
  • It is a 48-nation club that governs trade in commercial nuclear technology and was originally set up in response to India’s first atomic weapons test in 1974.

 

Australia Group

  • The Australia Group is an informal group of countries (now joined by the European Commission) established in 1985 (after the use of chemical weapons by Iraq in 1984) to help member countries to identify those exports which need to be controlled so as not to contribute to the spread of chemical and biological weapons.

Wassenaar Arrangement

  • The Wassenaar Arrangement (not to be confused with the Wassenaar Agreement), (full name: The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies) is a multilateral export control regime (MECR) with 41 participating states.
  • The Wassenaar Arrangement was established to contribute to regional and international security and stability by promoting transparency and greater responsibility in transfers of conventional arms and dual-use goods and technologies, thus preventing destabilizing accumulations.
  • Participating States seek, through their national policies, to ensure that transfers of these items do not contribute to the development or enhancement of military capabilities which undermine these goals, and are not diverted to support such capabilities.

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Courtesy (image)- http://ouic.kaist.ac.kr/eng/images/sub/compliances_img03.gif

The first step

  • India to join first of the four nuclear regimes it is trying to gain entry into.
  • The members of the Missile Technology Control Regime, a key anti-proliferation grouping, have agreed to admit India.
  • None of the 34-nation group objected to India’s admission.
  • India’s entry into the MTCR comes days after India announced that it is subscribing to the Hague Code of Conduct against ballistic missile proliferation, which is considered to be complementary to the MTCR.
  • The MTCR is one of four international non-proliferation regimes that India — which in recent decades has gone from being a non-aligned outsider to a rising nuclear-weapons power — has been excluded from.
  • In general, MTCR is a missile control group, which was set up in 1987 to limit the spread of unmanned systems capable of delivering weapons of mass destruction.
  • Membership of the MTCR would require India to comply with rules — such as a maximum missile range of 300 km (186 miles) — that seek to prevent arms races from developing.

 

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