[Architecture] Arab Serai restoration, Rani ki Vaav UNESCO Heritage, Bara Imambara Shrine, Bidriware MetalcraftDevendra Vishwakarma
- Arab Serai: Restoration by ASI
- Rani ki Vaav, Patan
- Bara Imambara shrine
- Bidriware Metal craft
Arab Serai: Restoration by ASI
Why in news? Because Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) began its restoration along with Aga Khan Trust for Culture (AKTC)
- A traveller’s lodge / inn (Serai) located near Humayun’s tomb in New Delhi.
- It has 150-feet high gateway and chambers on either side of the entrance
- Humayun’s first wife (Haji) Bega Begum built Arab Serai (1560-61 AD)
- Had barrack for Persian scholars and craftsmen. But local people used the noun “Arab” to describe every alien. Hence the name “Arab Serai”.
- Arab Serai Served as halting point for people travelling to Agra via Grand Truck Road.
- Later Humayun married again to Hamida Banu- who gave birth to Akbar.
- During 1857 mutiny, Bahadur Shah Zafar was given advice to hide in this Arab Serai. But he chose to hide in Humauyn’s tomb along with his three sons.
- Rudyard Kipling also visited Arab Serai.
- During Akbar’s reign the Persian craftsmen also lived in Arab Serai, while building Humayun’s tomb.
- UNESCO Cultural heritage status? YES
- has ~150 graves of ruling family. Hence called the NECROPOLIS OF THE MUGHAL DYNASTY
- Financer: (Haji) Bega Begum (Humayun’s widow and Akbar’s step mother)
- Architect: Mirak Mirza
- Time: 14 years after Humayun’s death. (~1570)
- Material: red sandstone + marble borders
- Humayun’s tomb is prime example of Mughal Architecture. Mughal Architecture was inspired from Persian Architecture.
Mock MCQ Questions from above topics
Q1. Correct statements about Arab Serai
- Sher Shah Suri built it on grand truck road as a halting point between Delhi and Kabul.
- It’s a prime example of Arab Architecture in India.
- Both A and B
- Neither A nor B
Q2. Find incorrect statement(s)
- While both Humayun’s Tomb and Arab Serai were built by Humaun’s widow, the former enjoys UNESCO cultural heritage status but the later doesn’t.
- Arab serai is called the necropolis of mughal dynasty because during 1857, at this place, British murdered three sons of Bahadur Shah Zafar & deported him to Burma, thus putting a full stop on Mughal dynasty.
- Both A and B
- Neither A nor B
- D neither A nor B right.
- B is wrong. (question asked you to find wrong statement)
Rani ki Vaav, Patan
Why in news? Because Government nominated this site + Himalayan park for UNESCO heritage site status.
- Vaav= stepwell.
- Patan, was capital of Solanki dynasty(chalukyas) in Gujarat.
- 1063: Quyeen Udayamati built this Rani ki Vaav, in memory of her husband Bhimdev Solanki, the founder of Solanki dynasty.
- The step well was used for collecting water, socialisation and spiritual bathing.
- has sculptures of Vishnu.
Update: yes, it won the UNESCO heritage status.
Bara Imambara shrine
Why in news? Because shrine administration made a new dress code- women must cover their head while entering this place. Critiques say the timing of this ‘dress code’ was politically motivated.
- Bara= big and Imambara = shrine
- During Muharram, Shia muslims mourn at this shrine.
- Located in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh.
- built by Asaf-ud-daula, son of suja-ud-daula (nawab-wazir of awadh) in 1784
- The complex includes large Asafi mosque, tomb of Asaf-ud-daula and a step-well.
- The architecture reflects maturation of Mughal design.
Bidriware Metal craft
Topic in news because this Ancient map of Bidar found in London.
- 12th Century, Irani artists came to India, with Khwaja Moinudin Chisty.
- Some of them found patronage under Bahmani kings of Bidar, Karnataka.
- They make vessels of Zinc-Copper alloy.
- Decorate it with gold and silver engravings, finally a special treatment with local mud.
- Thus, these vessels have a magnificent black color.
- Famous monuments in Bidar: Ahmad Shah Wali’s Bidar fort, Rangin Mahal, Bahamani tombs, Gurunanak Zira.
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