[Answerkey] UPSC Prelim-2016: Paper-2 Comprehension, Assumption, Inference, Corollary, Conclusion- solved with explanationsDevendra Vishwakarma
- CSAT Paper-II comprehension: Observation
- Preparing inference-assumption for Prelim 2017?
- BRIEF THEORY
- SETs: Assumption-inference
- INFERENCE: Food security and biodiversity
- INFERENCE: Climate adaptation
- INFERENCE: Biodiversity is water purifier?
- INFERENCE: Needs form basis of society
- INFERENCE: Agriculture GHG
- INFERENCE: Diet for 2050
- IMPLICATION: Comparing National Income
- Assumption: Lactose tolerance
- IMPLICATION: Banking services
- SETs: Corollary and Misc. MCQs
- Corollary: CO2, Soil Carbon
- Corollary: Crony Capitalism
- Misc: Manual Scavenging
- Misc: Economics and politics
- SETs: Multi-question Passages
- Accountability, Vigilance, Civil services
- Justice, religion, communion
- Biofuel & climate mitigation
- Food supply and demand
CSAT Paper-II comprehension: Observation
- From length and time wise, it’d seem most of paper-II came from environment. But that’s because lot of ‘one paragraph-one MCQ’ type sets asked from Environment. Otherwise, quantitatively, comprehension MCQs are almost evenly distributed among polity vs environment vs economy- in the same 7-10 range. (Ref: Above graph).
- Significant number of comprehension MCQs- required candidate to identify inferences. There is no single-standard theory for it. So, and many of the answer choices are open to multiple interpretations. Hence, only UPSC official Answerkey can stoke the debate fire about which answer is correct!
- Two years back, UPSC had made paper-II qualifying in nature due to protests. It seems the examiner wants to get ‘even’ by gradually making paper tougher/lengthy every year. Lesson being: you can’t take paper-II in casual manner just because it requires only 33% passing marks.
Preparing inference-assumption for Prelim 2017?
- In many of these passages- one sentence would run for 4-5 lines, giving lots of data and logics embedded within. Those who simply rely on bullet-point readymade study material for everything- they’d find it difficult to process mentally at fast pace.
- Therefore, you’ve to cultivate habit of regularly reading newspaper columns, editorials, articles.
- For assumption inference- Plenty of techniques and practice sets in the book Analytical Reasoning by M.K.Pandey (BSC Publication).
- MK Pandey is sufficient. If still time, energy and money left you may also consult Manhattan GMAT’s Critical reasoning. Especially for its “t-diagram” strategy.
Besides, even in banking sector officer level exams, the passages are getting longer / tougher. So time and energy spent in preparation of this topic, is not going in vain, if you’re planning for banking sector as a career backup.
What is assumption?
- Assumption + Premise makes the passage.
- If we make negative statement of the correct assumption then entire passage will become invalid. (using this method, we can safely reach the correct option. Go through passages to see this technique in action).
What is inference?
- It is the conclusion reached from the given premises, on the basis of evidence and reasoning.
- It is possible that more than one option will be ‘probably true’ from the premise given in the passage. But we’ve to pick the option that is ‘definitely true’.
- T-diagraming technique helps in quickly eliminating the wrong options. Go through Answerkey to see t-diagram technique in action.
As t-diagram looks like this
|For conclusion||Against conclusion|
|Background info: blah..blah..blah.|
Not every passage will contain both for and against arguments. But in future, if UPSC starts asking new variety of MCQ e.g. “which of the following statements will strengthen or weaken the author’s position etc.”, then manually you’ll have to test it by putting them in t-diagram.
What is Corollary?
Ans. It’s an inference that follows directly from the proof of another proposition.
Ref: Nishith Sinha’s CAT Reasoning Book, page 4.4
INFERENCE: Food security and biodiversity
We are witnessing a dangerous dwindling of biodiversity in our food supply. The green revolution is a mixed blessing. Over time farmers have come to rely heavily on broadly adapted, high yield crops to the exclusion of varieties adapted to the local conditions. Mono-cropping vast fields with the same genetically uniform seeds helps boost yield and meet immediate hunger needs. Yet high-yield varieties are also genetically weaker crops that require expensive chemical fertilizers and toxic pesticides. In our focus on increasing the amount of food we produce today, we have accidentally put ourselves at risk for food shortages in future.
Let’s make t-diagram first
|For conclusion||Against conclusion|
25. Which among the following is the most logical and critical inference that can be made from the above passage?
|(a) In our agricultural practices, we have become heavily dependent on expensive chemical fertilizers and toxic pesticides only due to green revolution||Possibly true but not definitely true, because they’ve used absolute term “only due to”.|
|(b) Monocropping vast fields with high-yield varieties is possible due to green revolution||True. But not the most critical inference.|
|(c) Monocropping with high-yield varieties is the only way to ensure food security to millions||Possibly true but not definitely true, because they’ve used absolute term “only way”.|
|(d) Green revolution can pose a threat to biodiversity in food supply and food security in the long run||
INFERENCE: Climate adaptation
Climate adaptation may be rendered ineffective if policies are not designed in the context of other development concerns. For instance, a comprehensive strategy that seeks to improve food security in the context of climate change may include a set of coordinated measures related to agricultural extension, crop diversification, integrated water and pest management and agricultural information series. Some of these measures may have to do with climate changes and others with economic development.